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About Aguinaldo

Emilio Aguinaldo

 

Emilio Famy Aguinaldo QSC PLH(22 March 1869,– 6 February 1964) is officially recognized as the First President of the Philippines (1899-1901) and led Philippine forces first against Spain in the latter part of thePhilippine Revolution (1896-1897), and then in the Spanish-American War(1898), and finally against the United States during the Philippine-American War (1899-1901). He was captured by American forces in 1901, which brought an end to his presidency.

In 1935 Aguinaldo ran unsuccessfully for president of the Philippine Commonwealth against Manuel Quezon. After the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in 1941, he cooperated with the new rulers, even making a radio appeal for the surrender of the American and Filipino forces onBataan. He was arrested as a collaborator after the Americans returned but was later freed in a general amnesty. He explained his action by saying, "I was just remembering the fight I led. We were outnumbered, too, in constant retreat. I saw my own soldiers die without affecting future events. To me that seemed to be what was happening on Bataan, and it seemed like a good thing to stop."

 

His Excellency
General of the Revolution

Emilio Aguinaldo
QSC PLH
Emilio Aguinaldo (ca. 1898).jpg

1st President of the Philippines
President of the First Republic
President of the Supreme Government
President of Republic of Biak-na-Bato
Dictator of Dictatorial government
President of the Revolutionary Government


 

Early life and career

 

Emilio Famy Aguinaldo was born on 22 March 1869. in Cavite Viejo (present-day Kawit), in Cavite (province), to Carlos Aguinaldo and Trinidad Famy,a Chinese mestizo couple who had eight children, the seventh of whom was Emilio. The Aguinaldo family was quite well-to-do, as his father, Carlos Aguinaldo was the community's appointed gobernadorcillo(municipal governor) in the Spanish colonial administration.

Emilio became the "Cabeza de Barangay" of Binakayan, a chief barrio of Cavite del Viejo, when he was only 17 years old.

In 1895 the Maura Law that called for the reorganization of local governments was enacted. At the age of 26 Aguinaldo became Cavite Viejo's first "gobernadorcillo capitan municipal" (Municipal Governor-Captain).

 

 

Revolutionary and political career

 

Philippine Revolution

The flag of the Katipunan

 

In 1894, Aguinaldo joined the "Katipunan", a secret organization led by Andrés Bonifacio, dedicated to the expulsion of the Spanish and independence of the Philippines through armed force. Aguinaldo used the nom de guerreMagdalo, in honor of Mary Magdalene.His local chapter of the Katipunan, headed by his cousin Baldomero Aguinaldo, was also called Magdalo.

On January 1, 1895, Aguinaldo became a Freemason, joining Pilar Lodge No. 203, Imus, Cavite. He would later say:

“The Successful Revolution of 1896 was masonically inspired, masonically led, and masonically executed, and I venture to say that the first Philippine Republic of which I was its humble President, was an achievement we owe largely, to Masonry and the Masons.”

The Katipunan-led Philippine Revolution against the Spanish began in the last week of August 1896 in San Juan del Monte(now part of Metro Manila). However, Aguinaldo and other Cavite rebels initially refused to join in the offensive alleging lack of arms. Their absence contributed to the defeat of Katipunan leader Andres Bonifacio's there.While Bonifacio and other rebels were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare, Aguinaldo and the Cavite rebels won major victories in set-piece battles, temporarily driving the Spanish out of their area.

On 17 February 1897 Aguinaldo and a group of katipuneros defeated Spanish forces led by General Camilo de Polavieja at the Battle of Zapote Bridge in Cavite. The province of Cavite gradually emerged as the Revolution's hotbed, and the Aguinaldo-led katipuneros had a string of victories there.

 

 

Biak-na-Bato and exile

 

On the same day as the execution of the Bonifacio brothers, the Spanish army launched an attack which forced insurgent forces under Aguinaldo into a general retreat. On 24 June 1897 Aguinaldo arrived at Biak-na-Bato in San Miguel, Bulacan, and established a headquarters there, located in Biak-na-Bato National Park in what is now known asAguinaldo Cave. In late October 1897, Aguinaldo convened an assembly of generals at Biak-na Bato, where it was decided to establish a constitutional republic. A constitution patterned closely after the Cuban Constitution was drawn up by Isabelo Artacho and Felix Ferrer. The constitution provided for the creation of a Supreme Council composed of a president, a vice president, a Secretary of War, and a Secretary of the Treasury. Aguinaldo was named president.

Emilio Aguinaldo with the exiled revolutionaries in Hong Kong.

 

From March 1897, Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella, the Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines, had been encouraging prominent Filipinos to contact Aguinaldo for a peaceful settlement of the conflict. On 9 August, Manila lawyer Pedro Paterno met with Aguinaldo at Biak-na-Bato with a proposal for peace based on reforms and amnesty. In succeeding months, Paterno conducted shuttle diplomacy, acting as an intermediary between de Rivera and Aguinaldo. On 14 December and 15 December 1897 Aguinaldo signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, under which Aguinaldo effectively agreed to end hostilities and dissolve his government in exchange for amnesty and "$800,000 (Mexican)" (Aguinaldo's description of the amount) as an indemnity. The documents were signed on 14 December and 15 December 1897. On 23 December, Aguinaldo and other insurgent officials departed for Hong Kong to enter voluntary exile. $400,000, representing the first installment of the indemnity, was deposited into Hong Kong banks. While in exile, Aguinaldo reorganized his revolutionary government into the so-called "Hong Kong Junta" and enlarging it into the "Supreme Council of the Nation".

 

 

First Philippine President
 

Emilio Aguinaldo monument at Barasoain Church

 

The insurgent First Philippine Republic was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on 21 January 1899 in MalolosBulacanand endured until the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo by the American forces on 23 March 1901 in Palanan, Isabela, which effectively dissolved the First Republic. Aguinaldo appointed two Prime Ministers of the Philippines in his tenure,Apolinario Mabini and Pedro Paterno. He had two cabinets in the year 1899. Thereafter, the military situation resulted in his ruling by decree.

 

Death and Legacy

Tomb of Aguinaldo in Kawit.

 
The Philippine 5 peso bill depicting Aguinaldo.

 

Aguinaldo was rushed to Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City on October 5, 1962 where he stayed there for 469 days until he died of coronary thrombosis at age 94 on 6 February 1964. A year before his death, he donated his lot and mansion to the government. This property now serves as a shrine to "perpetuate the spirit of the Revolution of 1896."

In 1985, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas issued a new 5-peso bill depicting a portrait of Aguinaldo on the front. The back features the declaration of the Philippine independence on 12 June 1898. Printing was discontinued in 1995, when it was replaced with a 5₱ coin whose obverse features a portrait of Aguinaldo.

 

 

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emilio_Aguinaldo


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