Cagayan is a province of the Philippines in theCagayan Valley region in the northeast of Luzon Island, and includes theBabuyan Islands to the north. The province borders Ilocos Norte andApayao to the west, and Kalinga and Isabela to the south. Its capital is Tuguegarao.
The province is bounded by the Pacific Ocean on the east; on the south by Isabela province; on the west by the Cordillera Mountains; and on the north by the Balintang Channel and the Babuyan Group of Islands. About two kilometers from the northeastern tip of the province is the island of Palaui; a few kilometers to the west is Fuga Island. The Babuyan Group of Islands, which includes Calayan, Dalupiri, Camiguin, and Babuyan Claro, is about 60 nautical miles (110 km) north of Luzonmainland.
The province comprises an aggregate land area of 9,002.70 square kilometers, which constitutes three percent of the total land area of the country, making it the second largest province in the region.
Cagayan has 28 municipalities and one city divided into three congressional districts. It has 820 barangays. Tuguegarao City (as of December 18, 1999) is the provincial capital, regional seat, and center of business, trade, and education. It has a land area of 144.80 square kilometers and a population of 120,645 as of 2000.
The 28 municipalities and 1 city of the province comprise a total of 820 barangays, with Ugac Sur in Tuguegarao City as the most populous in 2010, and Centro 15 (Poblacion) in Aparri as the least. If cities are excluded, Maura in Aparri has the highest population, and Sicul in Santa Praxedes has the lowest.
Agricultural products are rice, corn, peanut, beans, and fruits. Livestock products include cattle, hogs, carabaos, and poultry. Fishing various species of fish from the coastal towns is also undertaken. Woodcraft furniture made of hardwood, rattan, bamboo, and other indigenous materials are also available in the province. The Northern Cagayan International Airport is a planned airport in Lal-lo, Cagayan. The airport will be built to support the Cagayan Special Economic Zone in northern Cagayan, which also serves seaborne traffic through Port Irene. The airport project will involve the construction of a 2,200-meter runway, with a width of 45 meters, following the standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Once completed, the planned international airport can accommodate large aircraft such as the Airbus A319-100 and Boeingregional jets of comparable size. SM City Aparri will soon be built once the towns of Aparri, Santa Ana and Lal-lo attained its cityhood.
- Duba Cave (Baggao) is a wet river cave and a swimming cave. Almost all passages with water, which is about 70% of the way to the Skylight Falls, have large breakdowns or walls without handholds along the side so the only way through is to swim. Because of this, it is highly recommended that personal floatation devices (PFDs) are used by all entering the cave. This will ensure a safe return trip especially after the long swims in.
- Rio Grande de Cagayan (Cagayan River) — the Philippines’ mightiest watercourse — is the longest and widest river in the country. Small streams originating form Balete Pass, Cordillera, Caraballo and the Sierra Madre Mountains meet other streams. It passes from Aparri traversing Isabela as far as Aurora Province.
- Claveria Coast is called the "Coastal Paradise of the Cagayan North."
- Callao Cave (Penablanca) has seven chambers. It is one of the best known tourist attractions of the province. It is in Barangays Parabba and Quibal, Peñablanca, near Tuguegarao, the capital city of the Province of Cagayan. Callao Cave has a natural cathedral at the first chamber, which was turned into a chapel by the local people. The conditions inside the cave cause stalactites and stalagmites, particularly in the deeper chambers. Every chamber has natural crevices, which let light get in, serving as illumination for the otherwise dark areas.
- Magapit Suspension Bridge (Lal-lo) is known as "the Golden Gate of Cagayan." It is Asia's first suspension bridge, built in 1978. It spans the Cagayan River at Lallo and is 0.76 kilometers long. The hanging bridge links the first and second districts of Cagayan going towards the Ilocos Region by the scenic Patapat Road.
- Calvary Hills (Iguig) consist of 11 hectares of rolling hills. It features larger-than-life concrete statues in tableau settings of the 14 Stations of the Cross, depicting Jesus Christ’s suffering and death on Mount Calvary.
- Basilica Minore Nuestra Señora de Piat (Piat) ("Primary Pilgrimage Center of the North"): The patroness of Cagayan Valley housed at the Basilica Minore of Our Lady of Piat has become the religious fulcrum of people wanting for favors of any kind. Visitors may view her history at the Basilica Museum which has an extensive collection of religious items and Our Lady’s vestments and accessories.
- Bukal ng Buhay (Piat) ("Spring of Life") is said to be a miraculous water that can heal diseases of any kind. It is below the hill where the Basilica of Our Lady of Piat stood.
- Portabaga Falls (Santa Praxedes) A well developed Resorts and Inn managed by the local government of Santa Praxedes. It has a total of 5 pools catering the needs of different age levels. It is widely visited by both local and foreign tourist due to its natural beauty.
- Sta. Ana Beaches — from pristine blue waters and fine sand, to rolling hills and enchanting colonial structures, to mystical caves and endearing people — are dubbed as “Untouched Paradise”, “Gateway to the Pacific”, “Game Fishing Mecca”, “Luzon’s Last Frontier” and “Marine Sanctuary”.
- Kalesa (horse-drawn carrier): In Cagayan, kalesas are common, especially in Tuao and many other municipalities. In Tuguegarao City, they are mixed in traffic with private cars, motorcycles, sidecar motorcycles, jeepneys, trucks, and bicycles.
- Calayan Island (Calayan): The island town is a two-hour boat ride from Aparri. It is rich in natural attractions like excellent beaches, archeological sites, endemic flora and fauna, virgin forest, crystal clear blue waters, plus hospitable and gentle people with colorful history.
- Ar-Aro Cave (Gattaran): Nobody from among the old-timers of Barangay Naddungan, with a population of not more than 800, remembers how this cave got its name. Only a few locals, particularly fishermen, know the place. It was discovered by some of their old folks as a fishing ground for eels and araro, a freshwater fish.
- Kalamudinan Falls (Baggao) is 26 kilometers from the center of Santa Margarita, Baggao, Cagayan. More than 100 meters high and rich in shrimp (locally called udang) and fishes.
- The Malaueg Church (Rizal) is at the Poblacion of the town. The church was preserved completely by UNESCO and underwent restorations. The church is made entirely of stones that was designed originally by Spaniards.
- St. Paul University Philippines (SPUP), founded in 1907 by the Congregation of the Sisters of St. Paul of Chartres, is the First University and Catholic University in Region II. Located at Tuguegarao City, it is also the First Private Catholic University in Asia and the First Private University in the Philippines to be granted ISO 9001 Certification by TUV Rheinland.
- Magapit Protected Landscape (Lal-lo and Gattaran)
- Lal-lo and Gattaran Shell Middens (Lal-lo and Gattaran)
- Palaui Island (Santa Ana)
Since Cagayan faces the Pacific Ocean an extensive shoreline sprawls along the coastal towns of Sanchez Mira, Sta. Praxedes, Claveria, Buguey, Buguey, Aparri, Ballesteros, Abulug, and the islands of Palaui, Fuga, and island municipality of Calayan. Sanchez Mira, Claveria, and Sta. Praxedes have facilities for excursion stays while Fuga Island is being developed as a world-class recreation and tourism center. Whale watching at the Calayan Islands are the most sought-after and scuba diving, snorkeling and fishing are the most famous in Palaui Island in Sta. Ana. The airstrip at Claveria could be used as a jump-off point to Fuga Island.
There are a lot of recreation and things to do in Cagayan for tourists and locals alike with its famous Sambali Festival celebrated throughout and in commemoration of its founding. Activities in the province are unlimited with its green surroundings, floras and faunas, caves and historical churches. There are many nice places to stay such as the Governors Garden Hotel, Hotel Candice, Hotel Roma and Hotel Kimikarlai all in Tuguegarao City.
Claveria is blessed with a wealth of scenic attractions which include the following: the Lakay-Lakay Lagoon, the rocky formation along the Camalaggaon Caves, the Roadside Park overlooking the Claveria Bay, Macatel Falls with its crystal waters that run in abundance throughout the year, the Pata Lighthouse that offers a breathtaking experience, and the Claveria Beach Resort along the serene white sand coasts.