Pangasinan is a province of the Philippines. Its official language is Pangasinan or Pangasinense and its provincial capital is Lingayen. Pangasinan is located on the western area of the island of Luzon along the Lingayen Gulf and South China Sea. It has a total land area of 5,451.01 square kilometres (2,104.65 sq mi). According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 2,779,862 people. The official number of registered voters in Pangasinan is 1,651,814.
Pangasinan is the name for the province, the people, and the primary language spoken in the province. Indigenous Pangasinan speakers are estimated to number at least 1.5 million. The Pangasinan language is one of the officially recognized regional languages in the Philippines. Pangasinan is spoken as a second-language by many of the ethnic minorities in Pangasinan. The minority ethnic groups in Pangasinan are the Bolinao, Tagalog and Ilocano.
The name Pangasinan means "place for salt" or "place of salt-making"; it is derived from the prefix pang, meaning "for", the root word asin, meaning "salt”, and suffix an, signifying "location." The province is a major producer of salt in the Philippines. Its major products include "bagoong" ("salted-fish") and "agamang" ("salted-shrimp")
Pangasinan was founded by Austronesian-speakers who called themselves Anakbanwa by at least 2500 BC. A kingdom called Luyag na Kaboloan, which expanded to incorporate much of northwestern Luzon, existed in Pangasinan before the Spanish conquest that began in the 16th century. The ancient Pangasinan people were skilled navigators and the maritime trade network that once flourished in ancientSoutheast Asia connected Pangasinan with other peoples of Southeast Asia, India, China, and the Pacific. The ancient kingdom of Luyag na Kaboloan was in fact mentioned in Chinese and Indian records as being an important kingdom on ancient trade routes.
Popular tourist attractions in Pangasinan include the Hundred Islands National Park and the white-sand beaches of Bolinao and Dasol.Dagupan City is known for its Bangus Festival ("Milkfish Festival"). Pangasinan is also known for its delicious mangoes and ceramic oven-baked Calasiao puto ("rice muffin").
Pangasinan occupies a strategic geo-political position in the central plain of Luzon, known as the rice granary of the Philippines. Pangasinan has been described as a gateway to northern Luzon and as the heartland of the Philippines.
The Pangasinan people, like most of the people in the Malay Archipelago, are descended from the Austronesian-speakers who settled in Southeast Asia since prehistoric times. Comparative genetics, linguistics, and archaeological studies locate the origin of the Austronesian languages in Sundaland, which was populated as early as 50,000 years ago by modern humans. The Pangasinan language is one of many languages that belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian languages family.
A vast maritime trade network connected the distant Austronesian settlements in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and the Indian Ocean. The Pangasinan people were part of this ancientAustronesian civilization.
The ancient Austronesian-speakers were expert navigators. Their outrigger canoes and sailboats were capable of crossing the distant seas. The Malagasy sailed from the Malay archipelago to Madagascar, an island across the Indian Ocean, and probably reached Africa. The Polynesians settled the distant Pacific islands as far away as Hawaii and Easter Island, and probably reached the Americas. At least three hundred years before the arrival of Europeans, the Makasar and the Bugis from Sulawesi, in what is now Indonesia, as well as the Bajauof the Malay archipelago, carried out long-distance commerce with their prau or paraw ("sailboat") and established settlements in north Australia, which they called Marege.
Pangasinan was founded by Austronesian-speakers who called themselves Anakbanwa during the Austronesian expansion from Taiwan in about 5000 - 2500 BC or the Austronesiandispersal from Sundaland at least 7,000 years ago after the last Ice Age. Anakbanwa means “child of banwa.” Banwa (also spelled banua or vanua) is an Austronesian concept that could mean territory, homeland, habitat, society, civilization or cosmos. The Pangasinan people identified or associated banwa with the sun, which was their symbol for their banwa. The Pangasinan people are closely related to the Ibaloi in the neighboring province of Benguet and other peoples of Northern Philippines. The Anakbanwa established their settlements in theAgno River Valley and along the Lingayen Gulf. The coastal area came to be known as Pangasinan, and the interior area came to be known as Kaboloan. Eventually, the whole region and its people came to be known as Pangasinan. Archaeological evidence and early Chinese and Indian records show that the inhabitants of Pangasinan traded with India, China and Japan as early as the 8th century A.D.
The Katipunan, a nationalist secret society, was founded on July 7, 1892 with the aim of uniting the peoples of the Philippines and fighting for independence and religious freedom. The Philippine Revolution began on August 26, 1896 and was led by Andres Bonifacio, the leader of the Katipunan. On November 18, 1897, a Katipunan council was formed in western Pangasinan with Roman Manalang as Presidente Generalisimo and Mauro Ortiz as General. General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine independence on June 12, 1898. Dagupan City, the major commercial center of Pangasinan, was surrounded by Katipunan forces by July 18, 1898. The Battle of Dagupan lasted from July 18 to July 23 of that year with the surrender of 1,500 soldiers of the Spanish forces under Commander Federico J. Ceballos and Governor Joaquin de Orengochea.
The Battle of Dagupan, fought fiercely by local Katipuneros under the overall command of General Francisco Makabulos, chief of the Central and Directive Committee of Central and Northern Luzon, and the last remnants of the once mighty Spanish Army under General Francisco Ceballos, led to the liberation of Pangasinan from the Spaniards. The five-day battle was joined by three local heroes: Don Daniel Maramba from Santa Barbara, Don Vicente Prado from San Jacinto and Don Juan Quezada from Dagupan. Their armies massed in Dagupan to lay siege on the Spanish forces, making a last stand at the brick-walled Catholic Church.
Maramba led the liberation of the town of Santa Barbara on March 7, 1898 following a signal for simultaneous attack from Makabulos. Hearing that Sta. Barbara fell into rebel hands, the Spanish forces in Dagupan attempted to retake the town, but were repulsed by Maramba's forces. Thus, after the setback, the Spaniards decided to concentrate their forces in Lingayen to protect the provincial capital. This enabled Maramba to expand his operations to Malasiqui, Urdaneta and Mapandan, taking them one after the other. He took one more town, Mangaldan, before proceeding to Dagupan to lay siege on the last Spanish garrison. Also on March 7, 1898, the rebels under the command of Prado and Quesada attacked convents in a number of towns in Zambales province, located west of Lingayen, which now constitute the western parts of Pangasinan.
Attacked and brought under Filipino control were Alaminos, Agno, Anda, Alos, Bani, Balincaguin, Bolinao, Dasol, Eguia and Potot. The revolt then spread to Labrador, Sual, Salasa and many other towns in the west. The towns of Sual, Labrador, Lingayen, Salasa and Bayambang were occupied first by the forces of Prado and Quesada before they proceeded to attack Dagupan.
At an assembly convened to organize a central governing body for Central and Northern Luzon on April 17, 1898, General Makabulos appointed Prado as politico-military governor of Pangasinan, with Quesada as his second in command. His appointment came a few days before the return of General Emilio Aguinaldo in May 1898 from his exile in Hong Kong following the signing of the Pact of Biac-na-Bato in December 1897. Aguinaldo's return gave fresh impetus to the renewal of the flame of the revolution. Thus, on June 3, 1898, General Makabulos entered Tarlac and from that day on, the fires of revolution spread.
So successful were the Filipinos in their many pitched battles against the Spaniards that on June 30, 1898, Spanish authorities decided to evacuate all their forces to Dagupan where a last stand against the rebels was to be made. Also ordered to go to Dagupan were all civilian and military personnel, including members of the volunteer locales of towns not yet in rebel hands. Those who heeded this order were the volunteer forces of Mangaldan, San Jacinto, Pozorrubio, Manaoag, and Villasis. Among those brought to Dagupan was the image of the Most Holy Rosary of the Virgin of Manaoag, which at that time was already the patron saint of Pangasinan.
When the forces of Maramba from the east and Prado from the west converged in Dagupan on July 18, 1898, the siege began. The arrival of General Makabulos strengthened the rebel forces until the Spaniards, holed up inside the Catholic Church, waved the flag of surrender five days later. Armed poorly, the Filipinos were no match at the very start with Spanish soldiers holed inside the Church. They just became mere sitting ducks to Spanish soldiers shooting with their rifles from a distance. But the tempo of battle changed when the attackers, under Don Vicente Prado, devised a crude means of protection to shield them from Spanish fire while advancing. This happened when they rolled trunks of bananas, bundled up in sawali, that enabled them to inch their way to the Church.
The religion of the people of Pangasinan is predominantly Christian and mostly Roman Catholic followed by Iglesia Ni Cristo, although few are strict believers and continue to practice their indigenous anito beliefs and rituals, like most of the people of the Philippines. Spanish and American missionaries introduced Christianity to Pangasinan. Prior to the Spanish conquest in 1571, the predominant religion of the people of Pangasinan was similar to the indigenous religion of the highland Igorot or the inhabitants of the Cordillera Administrative Region on the island of Luzon, who mostly retained their indigenous culture and religion. A translation of the New Testament (excluding Revelation) in the Pangasinan language by Fr. Nicolas Manrique Alonzo Lallave, a Spanish Dominican friar assigned in Urdaneta, was the first ever translation of a complete portion of the Bible in a Philippine language. Pangasinan was also influenced by Hinduism and Buddhism before the introduction of Christianita.
Pangasinan has export earnings of around $5.5 million.
The 1200 megawatt Sual Coal-Fired Power Plant, and 345 megawatt San Roque Multi-Purpose Dam, located in the municipalities of Sual and San Manuel respectively, are the primary sources of energy of the province.
Pangasinan is a major fish supplier in Luzon, and a major producer of salt in the Philippines. It has extensive fishponds, mostly for raisingbangus, or "milkfish", along the coasts of the Lingayen Gulf and the South China Sea. Pangasinan's aquaculture includes oyster and sea urchin farms.
The major crops in Pangasinan are rice, mangoes, corn, and sugar cane. Pangasinan has a land area of 536,819 hectares, and 44 percent of the total land area of Pangasinan is devoted to agricultural production.
Pangasinan has 593 banking and financing institutions.
Pangasinan has a labor force of about 1.52 million, and 87 percent of the labor force are gainfully employed.