Rizal is a province located in the CALABARZON region, just 16 kilometers east of Manila. The province was named after José Rizal.
Rizal is bordered by Metro Manila to the west, the province of Bulacan to the north, Quezon to the east and Laguna province to the south. The province also lies on the northern shores of Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country.
Rizal is a mountainous province perched on the western slopes of the southern portion of the Sierra Madre mountain range. Antipolo boasts of a wonderful view of Metro Manila and it is where Hinulugang Taktak, a waterfall popular with tourists, can be found.
The Rizal Province will be accessed by the future C-6 Road connecting the provinces of Bulacan and Cavite and cities of Taguig (beside Laguna de Bay), Parañaque and Muntinlupa which are located within Metro Manila.
Tagalog settlements arrived in Rizal who were originally Chinese and later had interactions and admixtures with Arab traders long before the Spanish conquest. The provincial territory began with the organization of the Tondoprovince and Laguna province during the Spanish administration. Some of the towns like Pasig, Parañaque, Taytay and Cainta were already thriving. From the reports of the Encomiendas in 1582-1583, the Encomiendas of Moron (Morong) was under the jurisdiction of La Laguna and, the Encomiendas of Passi (Pasig), Taitay (Taytay) and Tagui (Taguig) belonged to the Province of Tondo. It was recorded that in 1591, the Encomiendas of Moron and Taitay were under the jurisdiction of the Franciscan Order in the Province of La Laguna; and the Encomiendas of Nabotas (Navotas), Tambobo (Malabon), Tondo, Parañaque, Longalo (Dongalo), Tagui and Pasig were under the jurisdiction of the Augustinians in the Province of Tondo.
In 1853, a new political subdivision was formed. This consisted of the towns of Antipolo, Bosoboso, Cainta and Taytay from the Province of Tondo; and the towns of Morong, Baras, Tanay, Pililla, Angono, Binangonan andJalajala from the Province of La Laguna, with the capital at Morong. This district was later changed to Distrito Politico-Militar de Morong after four years.
In 1860, by virtue of Circular No. 83, dated September 2, 1859, the Province of Tondo became the Province of Manila. All its towns were placed under the administration, fiscal supervision and control of the Governor of the new province.
The town of Mariquina (Marikina) became the capital of the Province of Manila during the tenure of the revolutionary government of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. The Province of Morong had for its capital the town of Antipolo for the period 1898-1899, and the town of Tanay for 1899-1900.
On February 6, 1901, the First Philippine Commission sought to establish civil government in the country through a provincial organization act after the Filipino-Spanish and Filipino-American conflicts.
Therefore, on June 5, 1901, a historic meeting was held at the Pasig Catholic Church for the organization of a civil government in the Provinces of Manila and Morong, with 221 delegates in attendance. The first Philippine Commission, headed by William Howard Taft and composed of Commissioners Luke E. Wright, Henry C. Ide, Bernard Moses and Dean C. Worcester, discussed with the Assembly the issue of whether or not to write the Province of Manila with Morong Province, was not self-sufficient to operate as a separate province.
Although the delegates from Morong, Don Hilarion Raymundo and Don José Tupas, objected to the proposal, Don Juan Sumulong of Antipolo strongly advocated the move. After much acrimonious debate and upon the suggestion of Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera the body agreed on the creation of a new province independent of the Province of Manila. The new province was aptly named after José Protacio Mercado Rizal y Alonzo Realonda, the country's national hero.
On June 11, 1901, the province of Rizal was officially and legally created by virtue of an Act No. 137 by the First Philippine Commission which during the time was acting as the unicameral legislative body in the island of Luzon.
The new province was composed of 29 municipalities, 17 from the old Province of Manila (Caloocan, Las Piñas, Mariquina (Marikina), Lumisang-Aguho, Montalban (Rodriguez), Muntinlupa, Navotas, Novaliches, Parañaque, Pasig, Pateros, Pineda (Pasay), San Felipe Neri (Mandaluyong), San Juan del Monte (San Juan), San Mateo, San Pedro Macati (Makati), Taguig,Tambobong (Malabon)); and 12 from the Politico-Militar District of Morong, (Angono, Baras, Binangonan, Cainta, Antipolo,Cardona, Jalajala, Morong, Pililla, Tanay, Taytay and Teresa). The City of Manila from the old Province of Manila was treated as a separate entity. The seat of the provincial government was Pasig.
In year 1939, Quezon City was established, which included parts of Caloocan, and later on, Novaliches and the parts of San Juan Province.
Before the 1990s, the primary source of economy in Rizal province were the huge piggery estates owned by Manila-based families. In the recent years, the province became one of the most progressive provinces in country, owing to its proximity to Metro Manila, the economic center of the Philippines. Antipolo, Taytay and Cainta serve as the economic centers of the province, while Angono, Rodriguez, Morong, San Mateo, Tanay, Binangonan and Teresa are taking successful steps to urbanize areas within their jurisdiction. Other areas of the province are having difficulty to start the urbanization process, mainly because of the lack of main roads to connect these to economic centers.
In a study recently conducted by the National Statistics Coordination Board (NSCB), Rizal province came out to be the Philippines' least poor province with a poverty incidence rate of 3.4%, even lower than that of the National Capital Region or Metro Manila.. In April 23, 2013, the National Statistics Coordination Board (NCSB)reported that Rizal, from being the least poor province in poverty incidence moved down to the 3rd Place, with Cavite taking over as the least province by 4.1% (compared to Rizal's 7.6%) and Laguna for 2nd with 6.3%.
Antipolo, the province's capital city, is the center of trade and exchange, tourism, government and economy. It is also a center of education and sports because of the availability of various educational and physical training facilities. Acclaimed of its scenic attractions, the city also produces agricultural products such as cashew nuts and rice cakes. Taytay, the province's center of garment and textile manufacturing, is also the town where the country's largest mall operator runs a store near the town center. Meanwhile, Cainta serves as the center of business-process outsourcing (BPO) businesses in the province, aside from being known for the presence of several shopping centers and delicacies such as bibingka or rice cakes.