Sultan Kudarat is located on the southwestern part of the island of Mindanao. It is bounded on the north by the provinces of Maguindanao andCotabato; on the south by South Cotabato and Sarangani; on the east byDavao del Sur; and on the west by the Celebes Sea. The province's total land area is 529,834 hectares (1,309,250 acres).
The three coastal towns on the province's western side are lined with mountain ranges that separate the central part of the province from the sea. There are also mountains on the eastern side, leaving flat land in between.
The climate is characterized by a short dry season lasting from one to three months. Unlike most other provinces in the country, Sultan Kudarat is generally free from typhoons and rainfall is more evenly distributed throughout the year.
Sultan Kudarat was once a part of the former empire province of Cotabato. It was created as a separate province along with Maguindanao and North Cotabato on November 22, 1973, by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 341 signed by President Ferdinand E. Marcos.
The purpose of dividing Cotabato into three (3) smaller provinces is stated in Presidential Decree No. 341:
The name Sultan Kudarat given to the province was derived from a Muslim ruler, Sultan Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat who begun to assert his leadership in the year 1619 and reigned the Sultanate of Maguindanao from 1625 to 1671. He is considered a national hero, and in his honour the province was named after him.
The economy of Sultan Kudarat is predominantly agricultural. With a large agricultural potential, the output consists of practically all types of crops grown in the country, including rice, corn, beef, coffee, and vegetables. The province is self-sufficient in poultry, swine, and root crops, and is one of the few producers of Irish potatoes in the Philippines. The southern Philippines Grain Complex in Tacurong is the largest grains-processing complex in the country. There are more than 200 rice mills in the province.